A Review on Global Distribution of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) Caused By Naegleria Fowleri- The Brain Eating Amoeba
Naegleria fowleri is thermophilic, free living amoeba commonly known as “Brain eater”. The habitats are in fresh water reservoirs and soil at a temperature of 46 .It is capable of invading CNS via the nose in humans, causing fatal condition known as Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). The symptoms initially present like bacterial meningitis and ultimately death within 5-7 days. So differential diagnosis done by withdrawing the sample of CSF from the patient to confirm the presence of amoeboid trophozoites. Other molecular test is Polymerase Chain Reaction but it is less favorable because of time consumption. The treatment protocol reported as combination therapy, which includes amphotericin B, miconazole, fluconazole, miltefosine depending upon the early diagnosis and condition of the patient.
A vast study revealed approximately 260 cases throughout the world since 1962-2014 which are from Pakistan, 17 cases, United States 132, Venezuela 7, Mexico 9, In Australia 19, 9 from New Zealand. India 11, Nigeria 4. 1 case in Namibia, Iran, Costa Rica, New Guinea, South Africa and Madagascar.5 cases from Thailand and Belgium. In the Czech Republic, 16 cases and in United Kingdom 2 cases were reported.It is the rapidly replicating and lethal condition having more than 95% fatality rate with only 11 survivals throughout the world.
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