Traditionally Used Plants with the Inhibitory Effect of Platelet Aggregation
During hemostasis, after vascular injury and wound healing process, platelets play a very significant role, where the platelets hypersensitivity is also related to the progression or development of various cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, there is a need to find such compounds, which provide more potent and safer activity against platelets with minimum side effects. This review article provided an overview of various medicinal plants having antiplatelet properties or pointed out the constituents associated with the activity, the part used for the isolation of plant constituents, and different pathways which mediate the antiplatelet activity. In this review different classes such as Liliaceae, Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, Arecaceae and Asteraceae were suggested for their antiplatelet properties to which various medicinal plants belong possessing such properties. Specific bioactive components in different medicinal plants which relate to the antiplatelet properties are flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and glucosides. These substances correct the abnormal state of platelets causing various diseases by changing the signaling pathways such as inhibition of thromboxane production, reduction of PKC activator; reduce the intracellular level of calcium, PAF or collagen receptor antagonist and inhibition of PLC and GPIIb-IIIa activation. It was observed that most of the components in these plants inhibiting the platelet activity by inhibiting ADP, Thromboxane and PAF activity. These investigated mechanisms provided data to develop new formulation in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders by inhibiting the aggregation of platelets.
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