RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2019-01-15T08:58:21+00:00 Prof. Dr. Khan Usmanghani Open Journal Systems <p>RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (JPPS) welcome original research articles, reviews, short communication and case reports in the field of pharmaceutical, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this biannual JPPS (two issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences and phytopharmaceutical sciences.</p> Spray Drying: Shaping of Modern Herbal Formulation 2019-01-15T08:56:02+00:00 <p>It is essential to use herbal medicine with the powdered material obtained through this technology make better quality of herbal medicine. The advantage lies on speed, versatility, quality assurance and quality control. Researches are coming out more to generate particulate products with precise specifications in continuous operations. Production of tablets by direct compression, stable herbal dried powders with good flow properties are easily formulated as required.</p> <p>Further research on spray dried herbal medicine is contributing on the utilization of the different medicinal plant materials for product development and herbal medicine promotion. Spray drying technique has made it possible to engineer intermediate products of many medicinal plant materials with improved physical and mechanical characteristics for further developing quality indicators. Since bioactive compounds present in plant material comprises of multi-segment blends and by the utilization of shower drying innovation, their partition and assurance could be a better option. We may expect in near future many established herbal preparation will come in market using these techniques and it will gain its market capital much quickly.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Weight Lifters Maltreatment of Anabolic Steroids in Twin Cities of Pakistan 2019-01-15T08:56:09+00:00 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This manuscript gives data about the use of steroids to build the body of youthful weight lifters. Steroidal use isn't just restricted to working out and weight lifting yet it has turned out to be a standout amongst the most risky fixation in our younger generation.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The observational investigation was evaluated in various gyms and wellness focus in Rawalpindi. The determined example measure was 210 muscle heads. The information had been examined in SPSS 18.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 46.6% of the aggregate weight lifters were utilizing steroids and various people were taking it through parenteral course that prompts number of risky impacts including barrenness. Results can be grouped into three classes. One class knew about reactions, other was unconscious of symptoms and the third classification has a place with the individuals who had no worry with dangerous impacts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study uncovers that the usage of anabolic steroids is extremely normal in Pakistan. Its utilization ought to be defend and mindfulness sessions must be done to get the general population aware of reactions.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Novel Composite pH Controlled Drug Release Hydrogel Containing Dexibuprofen 2019-01-15T08:56:20+00:00 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to develop a gelatin-cyclodextrin hydrogel using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker containing Dexibuprofen, characterized by the mucoadhesive and controlled release of drug in the stomach and its <em>in vitro</em> characterization. All non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) cause peptic ulcer in chronic disease condition like rheumatoid arthritis. In conventional dosage form of NSAID's the drug is released at once with reduced duration of action. On other hands in hydrogels dosage form the drug is released slowly with prolongs the duration of action &amp; minimal side effects. This also decreases the dosing frequency.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Nine formulations were developed by varying the gelatin-cyclodextrin (Gel/CD) and glutaraldehyde. Swelling studies of hydrogels were performed at three different pH conditions (1.2, 6.5 and 7.4). The hydrogel samples were also analyzed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The developed hydrogel showed Maximal swelling and drug release at pH 1.2. The results also revealed the development of pH-dependent swelling and drug release pattern which advocates its feasibility to be used for site-specific, pH-dependent, and controlled drug release behavior.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The developed hydrogels may prove to be a good plate-form for delivering drugs at a specific rate, at the specific site making the drug release pH responsive.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Depression Among Islamic Seminaries Students: A Cross Sectional Survey 2019-01-15T08:56:36+00:00 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Assess the magnitude of depression among students of Islamic seminaries (Madaris).</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This cross-sectional descriptive study is conducted from October to December 2017. 321 students of Madaris in Karachi selected for study. A validated Beck’s Depression Inventory questionnaire translated in Urdu was used. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 22 and Kruskal-Wallis test was employed for association between variables with p&lt;0.05 as level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The frequency of magnitude of depression among 321 students (mean age in years: 20.87±3.26, SE: ±0.18, %RSD: 15.62%) were found as; minimal depression 176 (54.80%); mild depression 64 (19.90%); moderate depression 49 (15.30%); and severe depression 32 (10%). Geographical background wise no significant difference of depression was noted among students.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considerable percentage of students of religious schools is suffering from mild to moderate depression. Interventional strategies along with promotion of prevention of depression should be developed on priority basis for these seminaries.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Comprehensive Study and Impact of Microbial Growth on Treated and Un-Treated Herbal Extracts 2019-01-15T08:56:45+00:00 <p><strong>Purpose of Study:</strong> The purpose of the study is to determine the presence of microorganisms in the herbal thick extracts which are being used in different phyto pharmaceutical industries for manufacturing of different dosage form designs to cure a wide range of disorders in humans. No doubt, medicinal herbs have been effectively used by our ancestor’s as remedy for curative functions but the high growth of natural and pathogenic microorganisms impede their efficiency, rather present safety issues. In present study, therefore the effect of microbial activity has been determined in untreated and treated conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study was carried out at the research lab, Department of Microbiology, Federal Urdu University, Karachi and R&amp;D unit, Herbion Pharmaceutical (Pvt.) Limited, Karachi Pakistan. The effect of microbial activity has been determined in untreated (without any treatment) and different treated conditions (heat treatment, addition of preservatives and heat treatment along with preservatives) to find out the most satisfactory technique for microbial control without harming natural constituents of plants thick extracts.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> A high rate of bacterial and fungal count was observed in untreated raw plant extract. After treatment with heat, however, led to remarkable reduction of microbial growth (&gt;10<sup>3</sup>cfu/g). It is observed after heat treatment for an hour and heat treatment along with preservatives for 30 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A remarkable effect on microbial growth can be observed in the herbal extracts through use of combination of preservatives and treatment for 30 minutes at 80°C temperature. However, no significant depletion in microbial activity was visualized after application of preservation and evaporation technique alone.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Depression and Associated Risk Factors Among Medical and Allied Health Sciences Students of Southern Punjab, Pakistan 2019-01-15T08:57:09+00:00 saeedahmed3723@yahoo.ccom <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Depression is diagnosed mostly in medical and allied health sciences students and affects their study performance. The study was conducted to obtain the prevalence of depression of the students of a developing area. The study also aimed to find the socio-demographic variables that could be the cause of depression in students.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A cross-sectional study was carried out in medical and allied health sciences students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale was analysis tool of depression. The participants with BDI scores of ≥ 17 were considered depressive. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 40% of students that have participated in survey showed BDI scores of ≥ 17. Results of study showed high BDI scores among 2<sup>nd</sup> year students, poor socio-economic status, poor study performance and urban area students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Depression prevalence in medical and allied health sciences students was found to be high that was significantly related to being junior in study institute, poor in socio-economic level and study.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Migraine Persistence Among University Students - A Case Study of SMBBMU Larkana 2019-01-15T08:57:28+00:00 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The theme of this research is to assess the persistence of migraine among students of SMBB Medical University, Larkana.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University (SMBBMU) Larkana for the duration of 7.3 months from 6<sup>th</sup> of May 2017 to 9<sup>th</sup> of December 2017 and migraine persistence was assessed among medical students. A questionnaire was given to them to evaluate the severity of migraine. Students with severe head injury or any other medical complications was excluded were not included in this research.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A contributive sampling techniques was used to collect the data for analysis. Total 213 study subjects had participated in this research including 137 male students and 76 female students. Specific measuring tool was used to identify the severity of migraine with mild, moderate and severe were used as parameters for identification of severity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Frequency of headache was observed more in feminine gender as compared to male Students. Females were more conscious about life styles and they always had emotional attachment with every event of their life including results, class presentation and dressing or university functions.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Comparative Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Verona Anti-BPH with Verona Max in Mice 2019-01-15T08:57:40+00:00 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Benign Prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is hyperplasia of prostate gland and age related diseases in men. 20%-60% men have BPH with the age of 40 to 60 years. The cause is not very well researched however the pharmacological and surgical current treatments have numerous toxic effects on quality of life. Natural medicines are known for its safety as compare to pharmacological choice of medicines. By considering this fact, current experimental study was established to compare and assess the acute oral toxicity of the Verona Anti-PBH with Verona Max in NMRI strain of mice on animal model.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> NMRI mice were obtained for experimental purpose from animal house facility of Herbion Pvt. Ltd. Constant environmental conditions were 25 ± 1 °C with R.H 52 - 61% with 12 hours dark and light cycle. As per desire, food and water were available. Animals were divided into three different groups including two treatment and control group. Treatment group including Verona Anti-BPH and Verona Max however control group were on water. Animal’s age were 6-8 weeks and average body weight were 25-35 g however cage cards were used for identifications between the groups. Mice were treated orally using gastric gavage with doses (1 or 5g/kg) of test product for 14 days and observed daily.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The Verona anti-BPH and Verona Max did not cause any sign of ill health and acute toxicity in mice at the given doses of 1 or 5 g/kg. No hair loss, color loss, heart rate (chest expansion and retraction), writhing, stretching and fecal abnormality was observed. No remarkable change in the behavior and no mortality was observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study evaluated that Verona anti-BPH and Verona Max extract is potentially safe and no acute oral toxicity has found.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Linezolid Study on Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Through Disc Diffusion Method 2019-01-15T08:57:58+00:00 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Linezolid on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> through disc diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Discs of Linezolid were used for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of the Linezolid. Antibacterial activity was investigated against gram positive <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and gram negative <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The disc content of Linezolid was composed of 30 µg.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The antimicrobial susceptibility test demonstrated that Linezolid was effective against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Two isolates of <em>Staphylococcus</em> aureus showed susceptibility (zones were found 26mm and 22mm), while one of the isolates of <em>Escherichia coli</em> showed susceptibility and the other showed resistance (zones were found 21mm and 18mm, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that Linezolid have better antibacterial activity on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> as well as on <em>Escherichia coli</em> so can be used in treatment of different infections.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Constituents of Cosmeceuticals and Implication of Nanotechnology in Cosmetics 2019-01-15T08:58:07+00:00 <p>Compounds that are used in reducing the wrinkles and fine lines for the beautification of skin, containing some biological activity are categorized under the term of “Cosmeceuticals”. With the progression in age of individuals both the demand and need of makeup and beauty enhancer products increases. Peptides, preservatives, antioxidants, vitamins and polysaccharide are the major constituents of the cosmeceuticals. Marine organisms having extraordinary anti-aging property are widely used as a basic source of cosmeceutical. Herbal materials, being less potent and toxic, also used in many cosmeceutical products. There is a massive increase in use of nanotechnology in the field of cosmeceutical. It offers improved bioavailability at minimal dose due to its small size which aid in crossing the skin barrier more easily.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences A Panoramic Review on Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Homeopathic Uses of Echinacea angustifolia 2019-01-15T08:58:21+00:00 <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Echinacea angustifolia </em>is traditionally used polychrest remedy and known since 18<sup>th</sup> century due to many medicinal properties. It is also well known homeopathic medicine that is useful for various diseases<strong>. </strong>Traditionally it is used in various ailments.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In present study, attempt has been made to review the literature of the botanical, ethnobotanical, taxonomical, chemical constituents, and homeopathic uses of <em>E. angustifolia.</em></p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> This is a narrative brief review in which information was collected from various search engines and text books.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded from present study that that <em>E. angustifolia </em>could be an alternative to immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences