RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2019-05-17T05:39:48+00:00 Chief Editor Open Journal Systems <p>RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (JPPS) welcomes original research articles, reviews, short communication and case reports in the field of pharmaceutical, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this quarterly JPPS (four issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences and phytopharmaceutical sciences.</p> Upright Attempts for a Splendid Future 2019-05-17T05:39:48+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Liaquat Raza <p>I am pleased to release the 7th volume and very first issue (year 2019) of the RADS-JPPS. This issue contains research and review articles on interesting and important topics. The published articles of this issue covered diversified range of pharmaceutical and related topics. Study about quality testing of various available brands of one of the widely used antibiotics i.e., moxifloxacin, will provide physicians and pharmacists a good insight to choose product with better quality. Another article focused on the protein kinase inhibitory potential and anti-fungal of ribavirin metallic complexes. It will be good add on to those researchers who may be interested to explore other potential activities of this antiviral drug. However, meta-analysis about NSAIDs induced ulcers will be valuable for practitioners to optimize the dosing and time course of NSAIDs usage in order to minimize the susceptibility to develop ulcer as well as its treatment. Two articles of this issue are related to activities of natural products, revealing the anti-ulcer effect of <em>Nardostachys jatamansi</em> in an assay, while other study reported the bactericidal mechanism of <em>Sphaeranthus indicus</em>. It is worthy to mention that this issue has included a study which is from the alternative treatment approach domain i.e., homeopathy, it is first time to report the actions of homeopathic 'Mother Tincture <em>Aesculus hippocastanum</em>' in respect to its antibacterial potential. Lastly, review on pharmacological activities of <em>Punica granatum</em> will turn very much helpful to those working on this plant. Likewise, <em>Grewia asiatica</em>'s review covering its composition and activities in one article provided a comprehensive picture about this plant. I hope readers and researchers of the fields will find this issue really informative and worthy. I would be happy to get any comment and notes from the readers of RADS-JPPS. Our editorial team is constantly putting their best efforts to provide readers with updated and cutting-edge findings and improve the quality of the journal. Send us your latest findings to be part of upcoming issues of 2019.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmaceutical Quality Assessment of Different Brands of Moxifloxacin 400 mg Tablets Available in Pakistan 2019-05-03T12:33:41+00:00 Mazhar Rasool Shah Muahammad Iqbal Nasiri Sohail Anwer Tariq Ali Kamran Zaheer Kamran Ahmed Muhammad Azeem Muhammad Umair Saleem <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of the current study was to characterize the quality control parameters and cost effective analysis of five selected different brands of moxifloxacin 400 mg tablets. Moxifloxacin is a fourth generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic, having activity against gram-negative (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Haemophilus influenza</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>, <em>Proteus mirabilis</em> and <em>Moraxella catarrhalis</em>) and gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Streptococcus anginosus</em>, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, <em>Pneumococci</em>, AND <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>) microorganisms.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> All five selected brands were coded as M-1, M-2, M-3, M-4 and M-5 and the price were noted as PKR 805.82 ($6.03), 375 ($2.81), 475 ($3.56), 300 ($2.25) and 160 ($1.20) per 5 tablets, respectively. By using official and non-official tests, all the brands were evaluated for physical and chemical characteristics such as hardness, weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and assay using already reported HPLC and spectrophotometric methods. The brand M-1 was considered as reference, due to its good physical and chemical properties and its dissolution profile was compared with other brands, using model independent approach (similarity factor- <em>f</em><sub>2</sub>), to compare the dissolution profile of generic drug products with reference. There is a large variation in the price of reference and other generic drugs available in the local market of Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of physical and chemical tests showed that that all brands of moxifloxacin were within the specified limits. The amount of moxifloxacin in all five brands was within the USP specification of not less than 80% at 45 minutes. Similarly, the values of <em>f<sub>2</sub></em> for M-2 (77.20), M-3 (69.56), M-4 (76.98) and M-5 (82.17) indicated that all the brands were found to be similar with reference brand.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that low cost local brands of moxifloxacin 400 mg tablets can be used as an alternative in case of un-available brands in the market. This study will be helpful to the healthcare practitioners to prescribe other generic brands of moxifloxacin, as the cost is 50% less in comparison with reference which may reduce the medication cost to the patients.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Protein Kinase Inhibitory Potential and Anti-Fungal Activities of Metal Complexes of Anti-Viral Drug Ribavirin 2019-05-03T12:33:41+00:00 Samar Akhtar Hamaad Ahmad Hashaam Akhtar Rehman Zafar Wajeeha Waseem Maryam Khan Sherwani <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ribavirin, a known antiviral drug, potentially recognised for a number of pathological conditions like hepatitis C, Lassa fever and Hanta virus infection. It predominantly works by inhibiting viral RNA synthesis that in turn stop viral multiplication. The best prosperous derivative of this drug is Taribavirin (3-carboxamidine derivative).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In this research, we aim to synthesize the metal complexes of already marketed drug ribavirin, because the complexation of such approved marketed drug will save time and currency that may spend in relation to clinical development of new drug molecule.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Eleven derivatives (S-01-S-11) of ribavirin were synthesized in combination with di/tri organotin, Zn, Cu and Fe. Characterization was done through IR and H<sup>1</sup> NMR spectrophotometer and these compounds were analysed for <em>in vitro </em>biological activities including anti-microbial, anti-fungal and protein kinase inhibition assay.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Research revealed that addition of trace metals to approved marketed drug have enhanced the biological properties of unbound drug.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Outcomes of this research clearly indicates the enhancement of biological activities of free drug through immersion of metals which could be further analysed for toxicity studies.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Esomeprazole in NSAIDs Induced Gastric Ulcer: A Meta-Analysis 2019-05-03T12:33:42+00:00 Nimra Mujeeb Muhammad Liaquat Raza Ale Zehra <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gastric ulcers are painful sores with discontinuity in the entire thickness of stomach lining. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the major classes of drugs used in treatment of gastric ulcers by inhibiting H<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup>ATPase pump thus reducing acid secretion. The prototype of PPIs is omeprazole, one of its new derivatives, esomeprazole is known to have superior activity against NSAIDs induced gastric ulcer. We aimed to meta-analyzed various clinical studies on esomeprazole and tried to draw a conclusion that may suggest refined clinical efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Utilizing databases of FDA listed clinical trials and PubMed. We shortlisted randomized controlled trials that were only related to esomeprazole's efficacy in NSAIDs induced gastric ulcer. Additionally, comparison was also evaluated in regard to adverse events of esomeprazole. Data extraction and assessment of study validity was performed independently.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After critically analyzing four major important related clinical trials (n=3837), it was found that at 24 weeks, patients maintained on esomeprazole 20 mg OD (167/173) were gastric ulcer free, in comparison to placebo group (112/168). Similar results were obtained with 26 weeks treatment of esomeprazole at doses of 20 mg, 40 mg (808/818), and (798/804), respectively. While, outcome of another trial at the same dose, for the duration of 52 weeks, 125 out of 130 patients showed recovery from gastric ulcer, compared to 40/799 in placebo group. Similarly, in the other trial, patients who were given esomeprazole in combination with naproxen (500 mg), displayed positive effect in 166 out of 218 patients. Adverse events were observed only in 5/218 and 6/216, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and Conclusion:</strong> Esomeprazole therapy showed efficacious results, both when it was given for the period of 24 weeks and over 50 weeks without producing serious adverse effects. Reduction in the NSAIDs induced gastric ulcer by esomeprazole was achieved effectively in chosen clinical trial, suggesting esomeprazole, a preferable choice for reducing the gastric ulcers.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In Vitro Anti-Ulcer Potential of Nardostachys jatamansi Through Anti-Urease Assay 2019-05-03T12:33:42+00:00 Tayyeba Rehman Saeed Ahmad Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi Aymen Owais Ghauri Shifa Shafique <p><strong>Background:</strong> Drug resistance is the reason for search of new medicines from natural sources. Natural products and plants showed gastro-protective and anti-ulcer effects by either prophylactic (antioxidant) or therapeutic means (anti-urease, <em>etc</em>.). <em>Nardostachys jatamansi</em> is used traditionally as gastro-protective. The study aims to evaluate anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extract of <em>N. jatamansi </em>through its anti-urease potential and also appraise its antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay. Elisa microplate reader was used to estimate DPPH and urease inhibition.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study results showed that <em>N. jatamansi</em> inhibited DPPH, and urease significantly (<em>p</em>≤ 0.05). IC<sub>50 </sub>of <em>N. jatamansi </em>against DPPH and urease were 218.5±1.0 µg/mL and 55.9±1.3 µg/mL, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study suggests the anti-urease potential of <em>N. jatamansi. </em>So, <em>N. jatamansi </em>could be used in peptic ulcer treatment. Moreover, this study provides proof of its traditional gastro-protective use.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Time kill assay and bactericidal mechanism of action of ethanolic flowers extract of Sphaeranthus indicus 2019-05-03T12:33:43+00:00 Nazish Mumtaz Muhammad Arif Asghar Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi Muhammad Asif Asghar Muhammad Liaquat Raza Ahad Abdul Rehman <p>The purpose of the study was to identify the bactericidal mechanism of action and time kill assay of a medicinal plant <em>Sphaeranthus indicus </em>Linn against some highly resistant Gram positive and Gram negative clinical pathogens<em>. </em>Antimicrobial action of this plant was compared with four different antibiotics using disk diffusion method. The MIC and MBC of extract was measured by broth dilution method. The bacterial killing mechanism of extract was examined using SEM technique. It was observed that the zones of inhibition produced by the plant extract were higher than that of some well-reputed antibiotics. The values of MIC and MBC indicated that the extract had strong inhibitory and bactericidal activity against tested isolates. The plant extract achieved a more drop in growth profile of <em>S. pneumonia,</em><em> S. typhi, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa </em>within 20 mins. After 12 h exposure with extract, the SEM images of <em>S. pneumonia</em> showed destruction of cell membrane and cells were completely lysed. It is concluded that ethanolic flowers extract of <em>S. indicus</em> have promising bactericidal potential at very low concentration. Its time killing was extremely faster especially against <em>S. pneumonia</em>. Its flowers extract produced bactericidal action through a cell membrane disruption of bacteria.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibacterial Activity of Homeopathic Mother Tincture Aesculus hippocastanum 2019-05-17T04:44:09+00:00 Shifa Shaffique Haseeb Anwer Hafiz Muhammad Asif Saeed Ahmed Khalil Ahmad Hafiz Abdul Sattar Hashmi Sabira Sultana <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Various&nbsp;antimicrobial are used widely in health practice to rheostat the growth of microorganism on living tissues. They are vital parts of infection control practices, especially in wound treatment and assistance in the prevention of infections. The current research was done to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of&nbsp;ciprofloxacin&nbsp;and <em>Aesculus hippocastanum</em> homoeopathic mother tinctures <em>via</em> well diffusion method. The objective of this study was to estimate <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial effects of homeopathic mother tincture.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The experimental homeopathic mother tincture was donated by Masood Homeopathic Pharmaceuticals, Pakistan. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (ATCC 9027) and <em>Salmonella typhus</em> were taken from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Ciprofloxacin (standard antibiotic) 1 mg/ml was taken as positive control and alcohol 70% was taken as negative control group.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Ciprofloxacin expressed maximum activity against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> among all tested bacteria. Aesculus showed zone of inhibition 9 mm for <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and 11 mm against <em>Salmonella</em> <em>typhus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Aesculus hippocastanum</em> showed higher effective results against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Salmonella typhus</em>.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Characteristic Components, Traditional and Pharmacological Properties of Punica granatum 2019-05-17T05:09:44+00:00 Tabbassum Zehra Shadab Ahmed Sadaf Zehra <p><em>Punica granatum</em> belonging to genus <em>Punica</em> family Punicaceae is considered as a wonder fruit for its ample pharmacological activities. It is generally well-known as pomegranate (Anar) inherent to central regions of Asia from Turkmenistan to Northern India and Iran. Various components of pomegranate are medicinally significant like fruit, peel, leaves, seeds, flower, root and bark. A pronounced variety of nutritive compounds like organic acid, fatty acids, sterols, minerals and vitamins have been found in pomegranate. However, phytochemical researches have shown the bioactive constituents including alkaloids, anthocyanin, ellagic acid, tannins, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds depending on the cultivars. Numerous studies revealed promising health benefits of <em>P. granatum </em>particularly anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive and anti-proliferative activities which are receiving great interest from researchers and pharmaceutical concerns. The current review embraces some recent findings underlining the pharmacological properties of <em>Punica granatum </em>that can be useful for motivating further research and for promoting its consumption as significant and safe medicinal food for human health.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphological, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Studies of Grewia asiatica: A Review 2019-05-17T05:26:26+00:00 Zuneera Akram Rehana Perveen Aisha Noreen Maryam Inayat Muzammil Hussain Sadaf Ibrahim Mariam Razzak Kiran Qadeer <p>Pakistan has various variety of medicinally essential plants which have been guaranteed with useful therapeutic effects and better bearableness for side effects. One of the shrubs is <em>Grewia asiatica</em> (<em>G. asiatica</em>) commonly called Phalsa fruit, of Tiliaceae family, is grown in warmer season for edibility and medicinal uses. In traditional folk medicine, Phalsa was used for its astringent, digestive and cooling properties whereas the unripened fruit has been used as an inflammatory reliever, antipyretic, and as an aid in blood and cardiac disorders. It’s leaves are applied on skin rashes while root and bark are prescribed in rheumatic disorders and infusion owes demulsifying properties. Different parts of its specie display distinctive medicinal significance but still needs to be researched phytochemically. This review article is dependent on information of conventional uses, phytochemistry, and organic impacts of various parts of <em>G. asiatica</em> rich in supplements, for example, nutrients, minerals, amino acids-proteins and contain different bioactive mixes, as anthocyanins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and phenolic substances. The extract preparation of different parts of the species showed different natural impacts, such as antibacterial, analgesic and antioxidant effects.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##