RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps <p>RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (JPPS) welcomes original research articles, reviews, short communication and case reports in the field of pharmaceutical, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this quarterly JPPS (four issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences and phytopharmaceutical sciences.</p> en-US <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br> This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> jpps@juw.edu.pk (Chief Editor) jpps@juw.edu.pk (for technical support) Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Coronavirus: Prevention is Better than Cure http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/370 <p>One of the hottest topics as well as alarming situation of the 2020 which caught the immediate attention globally, is sudden out-break of “coronavirus infection”. Initially started in Wuhan, China and gradually spread to other countries as well. According to recent report by Chinese Health authorities, the number of people infected has been more than forty thousand and the death toll climbed to 900 (this number is more than SARS epidemic of 2002-2003).</p> <p>World Health Organization (WHO) put this spread at highest alarm level. Various Asian, European as well as North American countries have reported patient’s infection from coronavirus. Human to human transmission is reported in USA. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a safe distance (&gt; 6 feet) from infected person can restrict the transmission to next person. There is debate going on how the first person infected from 2019nCoV. According to one opinion, it’s transmitted from bats into human who has eaten them but another group is skeptical about it.</p> <p>Coronavirus belongs to family of viruses involved in the respiratory infection causing acute respiratory symptoms. Many research groups are now actively working on it, genome of the virus has been engineered and recently a research group reported that came up with the vaccine (currently in pre-clinical phase).</p> <p>CDC has developed RT-PCR based diagnostic tests and recently this week FDA has approved the CDC test kit for diagnosing 2019-nCoV. CDC has provided several safety features from safe and secure from the outbreak of 2019-nCoV. These guidelines include following points:</p> <ul> <li>People should take flu vaccine.</li> <li>Health care provider dealing with infected person should take vigilant care.</li> <li>People in contact with patients should immediately visit doctor once respiratory symptoms appear.</li> </ul> <p>Now, taken into consideration of another dimension is the religious perspective, Islam has clear rulings about which food items are consumable and which are forbidden. According to Islamic principle, eating insects, bats, and snakes is not permissible. Following strategy of prevention is better than cure, if we restrict ourselves from consuming everything rather than only clear and safe food. We may safe from not only nCoV but many other diseases. Likewise, Islam also emphasizes on hygiene. If we follow the strategy of Islam, we prevent our health and secure lives.</p> Dr. Muhammad  Liaquat Raza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/370 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization Study of Antihypertensive Medicines Among Insured Patients at a Public Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Nigeria http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/320 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Access to essential medicines through health insurance contributes substantially towards achieving hypertension control in hypertensive sub-population of a nation.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives</em></strong><strong>:</strong> This study aimed to estimate the gender-based antihypertensive medicines use, to describe utilization patterns, and to estimate prescribing adherence to the health insurance guideline.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective review of paper-based prescriptions with at least an antihypertensive medicine written for insured outpatients from 1<sup>st</sup> January – 31<sup>st</sup> December 2013 at a Nigerian Federal Teaching Hospital was conducted. The prescription volume and Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) methodology was used to estimate the extent of utilization of antihypertensive medicines among the study population. Drug utilization ninety percent (DU90%) was used to quantify the index of adherence to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) guideline. Differences in proportions were investigated with Pearson chi-square test (<em>χ<sup>2</sup></em>). A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Females recorded significantly higher antihypertensive medicines use compared to their male counterparts (61.5% versus 38.5%, p &lt; 0.05). Diuretics (32.1% and 9935.28 DDD) and calcium channel blockers (32.1% and 8286 DDD) were the most commonly prescribed and utilized antihypertensive medicine classes. The index of adherence to the NHIS standard treatment guideline is 80.7%.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong> This study showed that diuretics (most frequently hydrochlorothiazide) and calcium channel blockers (most frequently amlodipine) were the most utilized antihypertensive medicine classes. Physicians’ prescribing patterns fell below the hundred percent benchmark of the country’s National Health Insurance programme guideline with respect to antihypertensive medicines.</p> Roland Okoro, Chijioke Nmeka, Patrick O. Erah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/320 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prescription Errors Still a Challenge in Pakistan - A Cross-Sectional Study from Central Punjab, Pakistan http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/327 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>:</strong> To evaluate the prescription writing pattern and errors in prescriptions at different health care units of Central Punjab, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted to conduct the present study. Data collection was done for a period of one month <em>i.e</em>. March 2018 from selected community pharmacies of five different cities of Central Punjab, Pakistan. Patients were approached irrespective of age and gender and data was recorded on a pre-designed Performa. The total sample size was 750 (150 prescriptions from each pharmacy). SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Sciences, version 20.0) was used for statistical analysis of data.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Out of 750 prescriptions, 662 prescriptions were included in final analysis. Patient name was found written in almost all prescriptions 660 (99.7%) while physician name was missing on 519 (78.4%). Healthcare provider registration number and qualification were not on 654 (98.8%) and 527 (79.6%) prescriptions respectively. Poly-pharmacy was observed in 103 (16%) prescriptions and no prescription was found with generic name.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong> The study results highlighted the imperative need to devise policies that should be regulated and implemented by the healthcare authorities to make our prescriptions in line with the prescribed guidelines.</p> Hafiz Obaid, Ahmed Umer Sohaib, Abu Bakar Munir, Jamshaid Akbar, Muhammad Qamar-uz Zaman, Muhammad Arslan Amjad; Sharjeel Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/327 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Cardioselective Beta Blocker on Lisinopril Treated Isolated Rabbit’s Heart http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/341 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Certain drugs produce unpredictable responses when used in emergency conditions. These variable outcomes may be harmful or beneficial for the patient.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>:</strong> This study has been conducted to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and metoprolol, a selective blocker of β<sub>1</sub> receptors. Cardioselective beta blockers are commonly used to treat hypertension, arrhythmias and ischemic heart disease.</p> <p><strong><em>Method</em></strong><strong>:</strong> In this study, 20 healthy male rabbits were selected and divided into two groups. Effective dose of Lisinopril (10 mg/kg) was administered orally <em>via</em> oral feeding, for 9 days. By using Langendroff’s technique, the effects of metoprolol were observed in isolated hearts.</p> <p><strong><em>Result</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The data showed that the effective dose of Lisinopril (10 mg/kg daily orally) increases the inotropic and chronotropic effects of metoprolol significantly (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong> Therefore, lisinopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme may increase the response of cardioselective beta blocker metoprolol in isolated rabbit’s heart.</p> Hina Abrar, M. Tariq Aftab, Hina Yasin, Kiran Qadeer, Adeel Arsalan, Hina Tabassum, Rahila Bano ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/341 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Self-Medication with Prescription Medicines Among Residents of Ilorin in North Central Nigeria http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/353 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The challenge posed by inappropriate use of medicine is of global concern. It is associated with patient using his discretion to choose the type of medication to self-treat a perceived ailment and the choice of medication usually devoid of health care professional input.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The significance of this study was to assess the pattern of self-medication with selected prescription medicines among residents of Agbo-Oba area of Ilorin, Kwara State.</p> <p><strong><em>Method</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The method was a descriptive cross-sectional study of residents of Agbo Oba area of Ilorin between January to May 2019 with self-designed validated questionnaire. Convenient sampling method was used to select the participant who met the criteria for selection.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The mean age of the respondents was 38.5±11.8 with minimum age of 19 and maximum age of 70 years. The most occurring age group was 26-35 years and primary school level of education, and artisan/trader were the most predominant in self-medication. Among the prescription medicines, antibiotics were the most self-used followed by steroids and cyproheptadine. Females were shown to practice self-medication more than their male counterpart. Marital status and level of education were factors that influenced awareness of risk factors associated with self-medication among the study participants, p-value = 0.017 and 0.039, respectively.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong> The prevalence of self-medication with prescription medicines was high and appeared to be more among female than male. Specifically, female misuse oral corticosteroids and cyproheptadine more and marital status and occupation type are strong predictors of their awareness of potential risks associated with self-use of prescription medicines.</p> Muslim Olakunle Jamiu, AbdulAzeez Iyabode Fatima, Aliyu Fullaila Onozare ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/353 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Qurs-Saffron and Quknar Polyherbal Tablets in Mouse Model http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/342 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>:</strong> We aimed to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects for two polyherbal tablets in animal model.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Suspensions of Qurs-Saffron and Quknar polyherbal formulations (p.o.) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (in carrageenan-induced paw edema) and analgesic activities (in formalin-induced paw licking test) in albino mice using Ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, orally) as standard drug. Acute toxicity testing of suspensions from Qurs-Saffron and Quknar tablets was also performed at doses 1, 2 and 3 gm/kg, orally. Parametric data were evaluated by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test while graphics were made using GraphPad Prism.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Administration of Qurs-Saffron (1000, 1500, 2000 mg/kg) and Quknar (500, 750, 1000 mg/kg) suspensions showed significant (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05) inhibition of paw edema and at later time point (after 3 hours), both suspensions showed highly significant (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.001) inhibition of paw edema. In another experiment (formalin-induced paw licking test), Qurs-Saffron (2000 mg/kg) and Quknar (1000 mg/kg) showed the highly significant (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.001) analgesic activity.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Qurs-Saffron and Quknar tablets possessed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects that were most likely due to flavonoids and phenolic compounds with free radical scavenging properties which significantly reduced inflammation and pain in treated mice and were also found safe in toxicity testing.</p> Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Abdul Malik, Haroon Arshad, Nabiha Pervez, Nadeem Irshad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/342 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge and Practices of Voluntary Blood Donation Among Pharmacy Students; A Cross-Sectional Survey from Lahore, Pakistan http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/337 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>:</strong> To determine the current knowledge and practices regarding voluntary blood donation among pharmacy (Pharm-D) students of Lahore, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> A cross-sectional quantitative survey was performed among Pharm-D students of two private and two public sector universities of Lahore, Pakistan in January 2018. Total 600 students were included in the study by convenient sampling technique. Data was gathered by a self-administered well-designed questionnaire and was analyzed by using SPSS version 23.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The level of knowledge among majority respondents (61.3%) about different aspects of blood donation was found to be good. The results revealed that despite having good knowledge, a significant number of the respondents (65.2%) were not practicing blood donation. The major reasons identified for poor blood donation practice were inconvenient environment and lack of facilities for the donors.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong> There exists a gap in converting the good knowledge of respondents into practice of voluntary blood donation. Effective programs should be initiated to promote and aware people regarding the necessity of blood donation.</p> Rida Asghar, Nageen Zeeshan, Ahmed Umer Sohaib, Abu bakar Munir, Muhammad Arslan Amjad, Sharjeel Ahmad, Jamshaid Akbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/337 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Antibacterial Derivatives of Doxycycline http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/257 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Nowadays antibacterial drugs resistance is major problem in the world. To overcome this problem, some novel derivates of doxycycline were synthesized by single step condensation reaction with ten different types of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and ketones in ethanol as solvent and acetic acid as catalyst. In these reactions, deprotonation of primary amine occurs that results in formation of imine.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> All the derivatives physically characterized and confirmed by analytical techniques <em>i.e</em>. FTIR and <sup>1</sup>H NMR and <sup>13</sup>C NMR. The derived compounds have exhibited significantly more active against both gram positive as well as gram negative bacterial strains as compared to parent drug.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Derived Schiff bases RDC2, RDC4 and RDC10 showed zone of inhibition against <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>as compared to doxycycline and derived Schiff bases RDC1, RDC2, RDC5, RDC6, RDC7 and RDC8 showed more zone of inhibition against <em>Micrococcus luteus</em> as compared to doxycycline. Yield (75%), m.p. 180-185°C, Mol. Wt. 1063, Elemental Analysis: (Calculated) for C<sub>58</sub>H<sub>54</sub>N<sub>4</sub>O<sub>16</sub>: <sup>i</sup>C, 65.53; H, 5.12; N, 5.27; (Found): C, 65.49; H, 5.18; N, 5.37; FTIR (ν, cm<sup>‐</sup><sup>1</sup>): 3066 (=C-H), 1665(C=N), 1585, 1490(C=C, phenyl), 3650(OH), 1692 (C=O); <sup>1</sup>H NMR (DMSO<sub>−</sub>d6, δ, ppm), 6.02-6.03 d, 6.91-6.92 d, (=CH-); 6.88-6.89 t (=CH), 2.89-2.90 d, (-CH); 1.07-1.08 q, (-CH<sub>3</sub>), 3.38-3.39 d; 3.17-3.18 d, (CH), 1.47-1.48 t (CH), 1.48 s, (CH<sub>3</sub>), 6.96-6.97d, 7.577-7.588 d, (-CH=) 15.21 s (OH); 4.62 s (OH); 1.46-1.47 s (OH); <sup>13</sup>C NMR (DMSO−d6, δ, ppm).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>:</strong> Doxycycline is among broad-spectrum tetracycline. The Schiff bases derived from doxycycline show significantly highly active against gram negative bacteria as compared to doxycycline. In future further study on these derived compounds will help in market new derivative of doxycycline, which will have more broad-spectrum activity than doxycycline.</p> Muhammad Rizwan Khan, Mohsin Abbas Khan, Khalil Ahmad, Asad Hamad, Muhammad Sajid-ur-Rehman, Hafiz Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Younus, Yousaf Kamal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/257 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Extensively Drug Resistant Typhoid Fever in Pakistan – Analysis of Current Situation http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/336 <p><em>Salmonella enterica</em> are the pathogens that causes typhoid fever and it is the major leading cause of serious systemic infection encountered in Pakistan. Many antibiotics have been used to treat typhoid infection among which chloramphenicol was the first drug, later ampicillin and combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) was found to be effective for treating typhoid. Those drugs were known to be the first-line anti-microbial drugs. Emergence of resistance showed by the strains of <em>Salmonella</em> species against the first-line anti-microbial agents made this infection a serious concern in Pakistan. Such strains of pathogens are termed as MDR (multi-drug resistant). Recent cases of XDR (extensively drug resistant) strains of typhoid are also reported, in which pathogens have developed resistance not only against the first-line of therapy but also against second line antibiotics <em>i.e</em>. fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporin. This review study was conducted as an awareness move on the prevalence of MDR and XDR typhoid cases reported in Pakistan and data was collected through literature search from different sources by selecting relevant keywords. This study would help us in understanding the real picture of emergence and propagation of MDR and XDR typhoid in our population.</p> Hira Afshan, Subia Jamil, Sakina Fatima ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/336 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000