RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2021-10-15T07:33:53+00:00 Chief Editor Open Journal Systems <p>RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (JPPS) welcomes original research articles, reviews, short communication and case reports in the field of pharmaceutical, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this quarterly JPPS (four issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences and phytopharmaceutical sciences.</p> Extensive Analysis of Pharmacists’ Roles and Services towards Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Bayelsa State, Nigeria 2021-10-15T07:24:50+00:00 Bunu J. Samuel Usifoh F. Stella Otele O. Denmo <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Vaccines can stimulate the body's immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease. Pharmacists and other healthcare givers play vital roles in vaccine administration, screening, and counseling of patients.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> The study was aimed to evaluate the contributions, obstacles, and limitations to pharmacy-based immunization services; and vaccine-preventable disease.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> Descriptive cross-sectional design was employed in the study. A sample of 105 Pharmacists who were working in Bayelsa state, using the convenience sampling technique were enrolled in the study.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Almost all respondents were aware of immunization. Lack of financial compensation workload of Pharmacists, no support from other healthcare providers, and absence of supportive laws for Pharmacists to administer vaccines, patients’ non-compliance, unease access to vaccines, and inadequate cold chain system was seen as barriers to Pharmacy-based immunization despite their willingness to contribute towards vaccination. Pharmacists can participate more in immunization programs to help prevent actual and potential immunologic reactions and promote adherence to scheduled vaccination programs.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Adequate incentive and incorporation of immunization into Pharmacy education especially during internship periods for the young graduates to appreciate and possibly participate in these activities would ultimately improve the quality of life.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concept, Beleifs and Practices of Drug Disposal Among Undergraduate University Students of Basic Health Sciences 2021-10-15T07:25:27+00:00 Fakhsheena Anjum rabia Bushra Syed Ahsan Ali Nighat Razvi Syeda Rabia Shahid Sana Islam Alishba Ahmed <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Environmental and water contamination due to the presence of pharmaceuticals has become a hot issue worldwide as affecting the environment and health adversely.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> The present study aimed to observe the perception, attitude and practice regarding disposal of unused, expired and left over medicines among undergraduate university students of basic health sciences.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> This was a cross sectional, descriptive study, conducted from November 2018 to February 2019, by distributing pretested structured questionnaires. Completely filled questionnaires were then collected by researchers for data analysis using SPSS version 21.0.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Out of n=200, the response rate was 79%. It was found that more than 40% students used to keep medicines at their home, due to poor compliance (39.87%). More than 75% of students had no awareness about proper medication disposal and they disposed unused medicines in the sink or flush. Around 40% students thought that pharmacists should educate about drug disposal while dispensing. About 75% respondents were unaware about availability of official guidelines for disposal or pharmacy take back program for unused medication.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Students were not practicing medication disposal properly. So, awareness regarding proper drug disposal is necessary for all, especially for students belonging to health sciences. Allocation of specific drug disposal sites and pharmacy take back programs are deemed to be necessary to promote a secure environment.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Malaria Malaria in the Population District Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2021-10-15T07:26:31+00:00 Imran Khan Sardar Azhar Mehmood Wali Khan Shabir Ahmed Ahmed Zia Noman Khan <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Malarial parasitic infection is one of the chief global health issue causes many morbidity and mortality mostly in the population of developing countries.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> To assess the incidence and infection related to Plasmodium in the peoples of Dir (Lower).</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods:</em></strong> Blood samples were taken by the finger pricked process of all individuals of the study sample from which thin and thick smears were prepared on the same slide. Used methyl alcohol for the fixation of thin smears. Giemsa stain of 10% were used for staining of blood film. All the slides were examined carefully under microscope with 100X objective. Crosschecked all the slides by senior Pathologists.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> A total of 1439 participants were studied for the presence of malarial infection in which n=232 (16.12%) were positive for malaria which was found higher in age group 16-30 n= 76 (18.22%) while the less cases were found in age group 31-45 years n=45 (14.46%).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Males n=174 (18.45%) were found more infected than females n=58 (11.69%). In month wise study August n=49 (18.42%) and July n=46 (18.11%) were found with highest prevalence while lowest prevalence were noted in April n=10 (12.98%).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Knowledge in public about Plasmodium infections, vectors, causes, preventive measurements and related disorder can prevent Plasmodium infection.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antitussive Effect of Aerial Parts of Caesalpinia Pulcherrima L. by Sulfur Dioxide Induced Cough in Rats 2021-10-15T07:27:20+00:00 Syed Muhanmmad Umer Gilani Rifat Roshan Salman Ahmed Muhammad Mohtasheem Hasan <p><strong><em>Study objectives:</em></strong> The aim of the study was to evaluate antitussive effect of aerial parts of ethanolic extract of <em>Caesalpinia pulcherrima</em> (Caesalpiniaceae).</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> In this study cough was induced by the sulfur dioxide induction method. Four groups of animals were made with six animals in each group and all drugs were administered orally. Group I as control, group II as standard while groups III and IV received 200 and 400 mg/kg <em>Caesalpinia pulcherrima</em> aerial parts extract.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Suppression of cough was observed by <em>Caesalpinia pulcherrima</em> aerial parts (CPAP) extract. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg <em>Caesalpinia pulcherrima</em> aerial parts extract showed highly significant results compared to standard at 60 and 90 min of drug administration.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> From the above results it can be concluded that plant have significant activity of cough suppresstion.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Monotheca buxifolia Leaves and Bark Extract: A Comparative Approach 2021-10-15T07:28:22+00:00 Samiullah Burki Mehjabeen . Muhammad Arif Asghar Zeba Gul Burki Ahad Abdul Rehman <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Inflammation plays an important role in various diseases with high prevalence within populations. <em>Monotheca buxifolia</em> has been long used in the folk medicine in urinary tract infections.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of <em>M. buxifolia</em> leaves and bark along with their fractions.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> The anti-nociceptive activity of <em>M. buxifolia</em> was assessed via acetic acid induce writhing test. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined via formalin induce paw method, while <em>in vitro</em> anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity was carried out through COX-2 enzyme inhibition.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The acetic acid induce anti-nociceptive results of <em>M. buxifolia </em>of bark were more significant (p&lt;0.001) then leaves crude extract of <em>M. buxifolia </em>at 500 mg/kg. The chloroform fraction of both leaves and bark extract also depicts significant reduction 26.5±1.0 and 23.5±0.8 in number of writhes respectively at 500 mg/kg. The anti-nociceptive effect of <em>M. buxifolia </em>bark in paw licking was also significant. The paw licking duration with <em>M. buxifolia </em>leaves crude extract was 1.9±0.01 min at 500 mg/kg dose (p&lt;0.001) in the early phase. The chloroform fraction also showed significant (p&lt;0.001) reduction in paw licking duration. The COX-2 inhibitory assay of leaves extract of <em>M. buxifolia </em>exhibited 60.0±0.5% inhibition (p&lt;0.001) at 1000 µg/ml. The chloroform fraction of <em>M. buxifolia </em>leaves at 1000 µg/ml showed 42.80 ±0.3 inhibition. The bark crude extract of <em>M. buxifolia </em>inhibited 63.83±0.73 % (p&lt;0.001) COX-2 at 1000 µg/ml. The chloroform fraction of <em>M. buxifolia </em>bark at 1000 µg/ml showed 43.83 ±0.33 % inhibition. The results were also comparable with standard drug diclofenac sodium.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Based on promising anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory results, it is suggested that <em>M. buxifolia</em> should be a part of complementary and alternative medicine.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prospective Study of the HCV-RNA Genotype 3a Diagnosed Patients Treated with Sofosbuvir and Peg Interferon Alpha-3 2021-10-15T07:30:16+00:00 Taha Nazir Nida Taha Halima Sadia Saeed-ur-Rasheed Nazir Abdur Rehman Muhammad Farooq Misbah Sultana Safia Sultana Munir <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a global health emergency. Every year, thousands of individuals suffer from HCV. HCV if not treated, may manifest severe hepatic complications, many of which have fatal outcomes. Various therapeutic strategies are currently used to eradicate the virus from the patient’s body. Treatment of the HCV patient depends largely on the genomic typing.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> The aim of the present study was to assess the comparison between Sofosbuvir and Peg-Interferon alpha in patients diagnosed with HCV RNA genotype 3a.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> A prospective case cohort study had been conducted in District Headquarter Hospital, Sargodha, Pakistan. Patients diagnosed with HCV genotype 3a were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups. Group I was assigned Sofosbuvir 400 mg and group II Peg-Interferon alpha 3 million units. Both the groups were also administered ribavirin. The study was conducted for a period of 24 weeks and efficacy was determined by the decline in the viral RNA load.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Each group had 50 patients of which majority were males. Compared to males, females had higher viral RNA load. However, the efficacy of both the treatment drugs was similar in both the genders. Comparatively, Sofosbuvir group showed better efficacy than Peg-Interferon group with significant difference in mean HCV RNA at the end of the study (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Although, Sofosbuvir and PEG-Interferon both demonstrated efficacy in reducing the viral RNA load, Sofosbuvir is more efficacious and better tolerated in the management of HCV RNA genotype 3a infection.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soft Drinks: A Threat for A Healthy Life 2021-10-15T07:31:07+00:00 Amber Nawab Javeria M. Rafiq Sheikh Faiza Muzaffar Huma Ali <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Soft Drink is a non-alcoholic beverage, mainly composed of carbonated water and high amount of sugar. From the studies, it is concluded that people who consumed soft drinks frequently have more chances to develop different diseases.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> This research was designed to observe the consumption of soft drinks in both genders, different age groups, and to gather information with respect to its impact on wellbeing; to analyze the awareness level in general public of Karachi, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> A cross-sectional survey based questionnaire was developed. The relationship between various parameters of the data linking to age, gender, occupation, consumption, effects and diseases were analyzed using basic tools of statistics.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> From this study we have estimated that 85.79 % of the population consumes soft drinks. Majority of the soft drinks’ consumers were teenagers with age range from 15-25 years. It has been observed in study that females who regularly consume soft drinks were more prevalent towards diabetes, obesity and osteoporosis while males showed prevalence of heart diseases, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, asthma and tooth decay.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Awareness campaigns should be conducted to educate people followed by development of strategies against the consumption of soft drinks especially in educational organizations.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mild – Moderate Acne TreatmentMild – Moderate Acne Treatment and Skin Allergic Reaction Treatment Using Aloevera Emulgel - A Case Study 2021-10-15T07:32:50+00:00 Hina Javed Syed Nisar Hussain Shah Nida javed <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> We are presenting a case 1 of 35 year’s old female suffered with mild-moderate acne for more than a year and the case 2 study was on a 14 year’s old male suffered with some skin allergy on his arms, in order to see the effects of our formulated Aloevera emulgel in both conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In case 1, the acne appeared as a small inflamed bumps with white heads on cheeks and forehead. The patient was given Aloevera emulgel twice a day at day time only. In case 2, the patient has applied aloe Vera emulgel twice a day.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In case 1, the clear difference in skin acne was noticed after two weeks of treatment and within three months acne disappeared completely. While in case 2, after three days the patient’s skin was cleared with no allergy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>The Aloevera emulgel is helpful in skin nourishment having soothing and emollient effects on affected areas.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison Between COVID-19 Vaccines Developed by Different Pharmaceuticals: A Short review 2021-10-15T07:33:53+00:00 Taimoor Hassan Sana Saeed Sidra Siddique Ifzonia Babar Ambreen Sadaf Fahad Ayub <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Coronavirus declared pandemic by the world health organization in the mid of March 2020, as it caused massive havocs on human health physically, mentally, socially and economically.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> To find the Comparison between the effectivity of different COVID-19 Vaccines.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> In order to compare the COVID-19 vaccines, this review analyzed all articles published during 2020 to 2021 in both Local and foreign journals. The main question of this paper was to compare the effectivity of Vaccines used for COVID-19. To answer this question, different keywords “COVID-19’’, “Vaccine’’, “Coronavirus’’, “SARS-cov-1”, “Pfizer”, AstraZeneca”, “Moderna”, and Pakistan separately and combined were searched in different electronic databases CINAHL, PubMed, HEC digital library, and eMedicine. The articles inclusion criteria were the Vaccines used for COVID-19 and full text available. Articles with copyright and lacking the full text were excluded. In the screening step, 51 articles were selected after review of abstract, according to criteria and duplicate articles removed. In last step, seven articles were selected for the final analysis.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The results demonstrated that Pfizer is the most suitable vaccine against corona virus, its efficiency is 95%. Modern is 94.1% effective against coronavirus, Sputnik V is 92% effective, Johnson &amp; Johnson is 86% effective, Sinovac is 79% and AstraZeneca is 70% effective against coronavirus.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> This review study concluded that multiple pharmaceuticals working impressively to develop the vaccine for coronavirus, some of them have worked so well and achieved very desirable results which are helping humans to sustain their normal life.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##