RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2021-07-13T10:08:01+00:00 Chief Editor Open Journal Systems <p>RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (JPPS) welcomes original research articles, reviews, short communication and case reports in the field of pharmaceutical, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this quarterly JPPS (four issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences and phytopharmaceutical sciences.</p> Incidence of Anemia in the Population of Dir (Lower) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2021-07-13T10:08:01+00:00 Imran Khan Imran Sardar Azhar Mehmood Wali Khan Shabir Ahmed Ikram Khan Ahmed Zia <p><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong> Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major global public health issue causes many serious diseases mostly found in the women and children of developing world.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> To evaluate and assess the occurrence and disorder related to iron deficiency in the population of district Dir (Lower).</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods:</em></strong> From all volunteers blood samples were collected from Vein through syringe and kept it in the EDTA tubes. Hemoglobin concentration was determined by the help of Hematology Analyzer. Following the guidelines of WHO, the value of a hemoglobin (Hb) was &lt;11.5 gm/dl the cut-off for anemia. Data were analyzed by using SPSS.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Overall 200 participants were examined of whom n=80 (40%) were anemic which was found higher in age 1-20 years n= 31 (15.5%), farmers n=28 (14%) and house wives n=20 (10%) and malaria patients n=7 (3.5%). While in gender wise study males n=57 (28.5%) were found more anemic than females n=23 (11.5%) P-value (0.95).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> Awareness and education in public about iron deficiency anemia, its causes and related disorder can prevent anemia of iron deficiency. Knowledge about nutritional requirements and iron deficiency anemia in women can save children and whole family from many diseases like anemia. So knowledge, education and awareness in population especially in women are very necessary.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Validation and Development of Analytical Technique for the Fast and Economical Evaluation of Amoxicillin in Solid Dosage form Through UV/Visible Spectroscopy 2021-07-13T10:08:00+00:00 Muhammad Iqbal Syed Saeed ul Hassan Muhammad Abbas Hammad Ahmad <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> The key objective of the study is to explore the sensitive, rapid, simple, accurate and economic UV/Vis spectrophotometric method to determine the amount of Amoxicillin trihydrate (AMTR) in bulk pharmaceuticals and in various formulations including dry powder (syrup), tablets and capsules by employing Copper sulphate buffer solution.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> The current spectroscopic analysis performed with 12.5 μg/ml concentration of AMTR at 320 nm follows the Beer’s Lambert Law. The linearity range (10-15µg/ml) and regression data presented a significant correlation coefficient (r<sup>2</sup> =0.999). The appropriate level of accuracy, precision, linearity, and mean percentage recovery of AMTR were found adequate relating to the % age error and standard deviations.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Amoxicillin trihydrate and its known strengths were scanned and analyzed by our validated method such as; 10.0 µg/ml Amoxicillin (80%), 11.25 µg/ml Amoxicillin (90%), 12.5 µg/ml Amoxicillin (100%), 13.75 µg/ml Amoxicillin (110%) and 15.0 µg/ml Amoxicillin (120%).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> As the recommended protocol of amoxicillin determination (spectrophotometry) is accurate, precise and statistically evaluated, therefore it could readily be employed for qualitative purposes of either for the raw material and pharmaceutical preparations.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diagnostic Accuracy of Mammographic and Sonographic Findings in the Differentiation of Palpable Breast Masses taking Histopathology as a Gold Standard 2021-07-13T10:07:59+00:00 Sadaf Ayesha Raham Bacha Tayyaba Akhter Mehreen Fatima Syed Amir Gilani Syed Yousaf Farooq Muhammad Yousaf Muhammad Uzair Mahjabeen Liaqat Maimoona Rasool <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The Presence of palpable breast mass may be an indication of breast cancer. Early and accurate diagnosis for the breast masses is important for therapeutic purpose.</p> <p><strong><em>Purpose:</em></strong> To assess the diagnostic accuracy of mammographic and sonographic findings in the differentiation of palpable breast masses taking histopathology as a gold standard.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods:</em></strong> 134 females were involved in the study. Sonographic and mammographic findings of palpable breast masses were obtained with the help of which diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and mammography was calculated while taking histopathology as a gold standard.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Mean age in 134 females was found to be 44.2±4.7 years. Sn, Sp, PPV, NPV, disease prevalence and accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosis of palpable breast lumps were 99.09%, 79.17%, 95.61%, 95.00%, 82.09% and 95.52% respectively. Sn, Sp, PPV, NPV and accuracy of mammography in diagnosis of palpable breast lumps were 95.45%, 62.50%, 92.11%, 75.00% and 89.55% while disease prevalence was same as that of ultrasound i.e. 82.09% respectively.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Ultrasound showed higher diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of palpable breast masses than mammography while taking histopathology as a gold standard. It is noteworthy in differentiating breast masses.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Herbal Medicine Among Medical Students in Saudi Arabia 2021-07-13T10:08:00+00:00 Syed Faisal Zaidi Muhammad Anwar Khan Sheikh Abdul Saeed Khalid Al Zahrani Adel Al Ahmadi Turky Al Yamy Aslam Khan Kanwal Ahmed <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Herbal medicine is becoming increasingly popular among the general population. &nbsp;Before consulting a medical practitioner, patients already try home remedies. Therefore, it becomes more pertinent that the medical students as future doctors, must possess some knowledge of the herbal medicine. In Saudi Arabia, no study has yet evaluated this aspect in medical students.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> A cross-sectional study was performed with 240 medical students at a Health Sciences University. The survey questionnaire was validated, and descriptive/inferential statistics analyses were conducted by SPSS.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Data showed 50/240 students (20.8 %) used herbal medicines and majority 36 (72%) used it without consultation with doctors. Moreover, male understanding of the sources of herbal medicine was less compared to females' (p &lt; 0.05). In terms of attitude, majority agreed with the benefits of herbal medicines in the maintenance and promotion of health (123, 51.3%) and to treat illness (127, 52.9%). However, medical students did not want to use herbal medicines (122, 50.8%) or recommend it to their families (161, 67.1%). A significant number of the respondents (160, 66.7%) opined that the herbal medicines could be taken with conventional or allopathic medications. Male students were significantly more inclined towards use of herbal medicine than their female counterparts (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Medical students were found to be unaware of some important aspects regarding herbal medicines, like use of herbs with drugs without consultation. Inclusion of proper courses on alternative medicine in medical curriculum can fill this gap and clarify the misconceptions among medical students.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effectiveness of SVR 12 in Hepatitis C Subjects Attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore-Pakistan: an Observational Data 2021-07-13T10:08:00+00:00 Muddasir Hassan Abbasi Adil Farooq Muhammad Babar Khawar Nasir Yousaf Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan Sana Fatima Nadeem Sheikh <p><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong> In Pakistan, for the patients of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Direct-Acting Antiviral (DAA) therapy for 12 weeks and 24 weeks had been reported to be highly efficacious for genotype 3. We currently carried out an observational study to predict the rate of efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin in hepatitis C patients to establish concrete or authentic data on this combination of DAA for long-term treatment.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Method:</em></strong> Among 2000 subjects who attended tertiary care unit in Lahore-Pakistan from November 2018 to February 2019, 1990 satisfied the criteria set for the present investigation i.e. SVR12 after being treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin combination.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> It was noted that genotype 3a were more common among all the subjects under observation with 50.65 % (1008/1990) in females and 49.35% (982/1990) in males. Overall efficacy analysis was found to be 95.4% (1900/1990) in patients while the moderate response was noted in elderly subjects including both genders (61-90 years). DAA responders (male: female percentages) shown the following stats; 66.63 (42/66):36.36 (24/66) in 11-20 years, 56.6(240/424):43.39 (184/424) in 21-30 years and 44.73(272/608):55.27(336/608) in 31-40 years.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Collectively, this combinational drug therapy was observed to be successful among the Pakistani population. However, more comprehensive follow-up studies are needed on a larger pool of population nationwide to check only this combinational therapy (sofosbuvir and ribavirin) would be beneficial or not? Or next-generation DAA regimes would be the choice for the Pakistani population.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytopharmacognostic Evaluation and Fourier Transform Infrared Fingerprint in the Quality Control of Various Culinary Herbs: AN ULTIMATE REMEDY IN ASIA 2021-07-13T10:07:58+00:00 Kaneez Fatima Shaukat Khalid Imran Ahmed Kiran Qadeer Nudrat Fatima Hina Yasin Rana Asif Hussain Iqbal Ahmad <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The quality and efficacy of culinary herbs commonly practiced in Asia as a remedy for seasonal illnesses such as cold, flu, congestion, fever and inflammation, etc. The extemporaneous preparations of these culinary herbs are being formulated as traditional practice either in the form of extract, decoction, and paste etc. These culinary herbs are being practiced for curing sporadic illnesses since ancient time.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong>In present study five herbs’ i.e. <em>Elettaria cardamomum</em> (cardamom), <em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum</em> (cinnamon), <em>Carum carvi</em> (caraway), <em>Oreganum vulgare</em> (oregano) and <em>Syzygium aromaticum</em> (clove) have been obtained from the market to assure quality of herbs in local market.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> Various quality control tests including microscopic evaluation, physico-chemical characteristics, Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been performed to determine their compliance with the standards. The TLC has been used for the identification of the active ingredients on comparison of their Rf values with the reference standard. FTIR Spectra of these materials have been obtained to identify and confirm structural information and assignment of functional groups.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Many of the herbal samples used in this study have been complied with the available official standards as given in Pharmacopoeia. If the samples did not comply with the standards then it indicates that the sample belongs to spurious quality of raw herb, which is the prime cause that may interfere with the therapeutic efficacy and variability of outcomes.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> This study help to provide a significant data to herbal drug manufacturers for authentication of commercially available herbs which may be used in the formulation of extemporaneous or commercially available herbal medicine.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biochemical and Histopathological Effects on Liver Profile due to Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Somina on Rats 2021-07-13T10:07:59+00:00 Aisha Azmat Muhammad Ahmed <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Limited research studies are reported regarding the toxicological effect of different herbal medicine already used in different countries.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> This research study was planned to examine the changes in liver (biochemical and histological) associated with oral administration of somina (acute and sub-acute) in rats.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> Group– I served as control (saline), while other groups (II, III) were daily treated with somina at different doses of 0.285g/kg (group – II), 10g/kg/day (group – III), for 14 (set I), 21 (set II), and 30 (set III) consecutive days.&nbsp; Each group contains 12 rats. During the study period, signs and behavioral changes, mortality, were observed. At the end of study period, blood sample was drawn directly from heart, for the estimation of liver enzymes: Bilirubin (BIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transferase (SGPT), aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), Albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP). The liver was carefully dichotomized, weighed, and further processed for histopathological analysis.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Herbal drug somina was claimed to be practically non-toxic as in rats no mortality was recorded after the oral administration of somina (14, 21 and 30 consecutive days). Liver profile showed non-significant changes in treated group- II and III (P &gt; 0.05), as compared to the control (group- I). The histopathological examination did not reveal any deteriorative effect.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> It was concluded that oral administration of somina did not produce any significant detrimental effects on rat liver (biochemical and histopathological parameters), even at doses of 10g/kg/day indicating its safe use.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prognosis and the Global Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic - A Comprehensive Review 2021-07-13T10:07:59+00:00 Syeda Zainab Syed Muhammad Farid Hassan Rabia Noor Farah Khalid Monica Parkash J. Ojha <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The novel coronavirus 2019 or SARS-CoV-2 appeared first in the December, 2019, in the Wuhan, China. The virus later effected almost every part of the world.</p> <p><strong><em>Aim of the Review:</em></strong> The review is aimed to deliver a detailed prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 on basis of evaluation of different attributes of the virus reported or published.</p> <p><strong><em>Method:</em></strong> Articles were searched on Google Scholar and PubMed databases. All articles concerning SARS-CoV-2 were included. The duplicate articles were identified with EndNote and excluded. Related data from WHO, FDA and CDC were also included.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The following parameters were found to show an important role in the prognosis of the SARS-CoV-2 i.e., physical properties, evolution, pathogenesis, epidemiology, demography, geography, diagnosis method, laboratory findings and clinical features. Moreover, several approaches were found to fight the viral infection including proposed therapies, proposed drugs, and vaccines. However, till the development of effective and safe approach the preventive measures are recommended to be strictly followed.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The global impact of this virus is beyond reconciliation and rapprochement. Its impact on various major industries such as agriculture, petroleum &amp; oil, manufacturing industry, education and healthcare, and the pharmaceutical industries is inexplicable.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potential Role of Glucose Transporters in Glucose Homeostasis: a Narrative Review 2021-07-13T10:08:00+00:00 Muslim Bin Aqeel Sana Ashiq Mayyda Asif Bajwa Kanwal Ashiq <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The <em>GLUT2</em> (glucose transporter 2) is a glucose sensitive receptor gene found in the liver, pancreas, and sometimes in the CNS. The experiments conducted on the genetically modified mice revealed their role in the different regulatory mechanisms.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> The current narrative review aims to elucidate the role of <em>GLUT2</em> in glucose homeostasis.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> The recent related articles were reviewed with the help of different databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Springer link, and Science direct. To ensure the credibility of data, articles published only in indexed journals were considered.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> In the liver (hepatocytes), it’s reported that there is an unsuspected glucose pathway (output) that is dependent on the membrane mechanism is in progress. In humans, due to the mutation in the <em>GLUT2</em> gene, there is a syndrome known as “Fanconi–Bickel syndrome” which dictates a glycogen storage disease type 11 disease characterized by kidney and liver disorders.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> It is concluded from the genome-wide association studies that the genetic mutations in <em>GLUT2</em> result in an increased risk of high cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and fasting hyperglycemia.</p> 2021-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##