RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2022-03-29T07:31:18+00:00 Chief Editor Open Journal Systems <p>RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (JPPS) is a quarterly open-access, peer-reviewed Journal encourages you to submit and publish original Research Articles, Review Articles, and Mini-Reviews, Short Communications, Letters and Case Reports in the field of Pharmaceutical, Health Sciences and the related fields for scientific publications. The JPPS Journal's central objective is to provide a venue or platform for researchers to share their latest results on a wide range of scientific topics with novel findings and modernize methodology pertinent to Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Phyto-Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health and Bio-medical Sciences.</p> Incidence of Nephrotic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Presenting with Proteinuria 2022-03-26T11:05:31+00:00 Ammad Masood Sana Ujala Syed Adil Ali <p><strong>Background: </strong>Proteinuria in diabetic patients is usually interpreted as a clinical manifestation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, not all diabetic subjects with proteinuria have DN. Nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) has been seen to cause proteinuria in diabetic patients. There is a wide variation of prevalence of NDRD. We conducted this study to determine the frequency of nephrotic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients presenting with proteinuria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: </strong>This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted at department of Medicine, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur. Total 92 individuals with type 2 diabetes between 30 and 60 years of age were enrolled in the study. Individuals with hypertension, chronic renal failure (CRF) and obstructive uropathy were excluded from the study. All individuals with nephrotic syndrome (presence/absence) were examined with appropriate medical history (diabetes duration, diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment, family history of kidney disease).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The age group of this study was 30 to 60 years old, with an average age of 46.52 ± 7.23 years old. Most of the 53 patients (67.61%) were 51 to 60 years old. Among the 92 patients, 48 ​​were male (52.17%) and 44 were female (47.83%). The average BMI was found to be 27.41 ± 2.74 kg / m². Nephrotic syndrome was found in 37 (40.22%) patients, while 55 (59.78%) had no nephrotic syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study concluded that the incidence rate of nephrotic syndrome is high in individuals with type 2 diabetes.</p> 2022-03-26T10:26:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stability Evaluation of Intravenous Admixtures of Tramadol Hydrochloride and Acetaminophen at Different Storage Conditions 2022-03-26T11:05:36+00:00 Kalsoom Naz Syed Saeed ul Hassan Muhammad Abbas Hammad Ahmed Muhammad Khalil ur Rehman <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study is particularly performed to analyze the stability, whether an admixture containing ready-to-use solution of Tramadol HCl and Acetaminophen will be stable and compatible for a specified time. As intravenous admixture of Tramadol hydrochloride and Acetaminophen is normally used in hospitals for managing postoperative pains. Therefore, compatibility and stability of these admixtures need to be evaluated experimentally.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Five different intravenous fluids were selected for the preparation of admixtures of these two drugs and studied at 5˚C and room temperature (20 – 25˚C) for one week time. Admixtures were evaluated visually for color change, turbidity, precipitation and fluctuation of pH at day 0,1,3,5 and 7. By employing UV/Visible spectrophotometer, percentage purity of both drugs was determined in admixture by applying Simultaneous Equation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All admixtures were found to retain their physical and chemical characteristics during the definite period of study. Furthermore, strengths of both drugs were persisted more than 90%. Therefore, admixtures of Tramadol HCl and Acetaminophen in various intravenous fluids were found to be stable and compatible when stored for 07 days at 25˚C and at 5˚C.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the significant results of our work, it is suggested that ready to use of the admixture of Tramadol and Acetaminophen could be prepared and stored in advance for efficient and effective management of pain in busiest pharmacies and hospitals.</p> 2022-03-26T10:34:01+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Role of Clinical Pharmacist in Implementation of Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis Protocol: A Single Site Retrospective Study 2022-03-28T18:29:00+00:00 Muhammad Amir Faisal Khan <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding is well documented in critical care patients; thus, stress ulcer prophylaxis therapy plays a vital role to prevent it<strong>. </strong>The guideline recommends the use of histamine antagonists such as ranitidine, famotidine etc. as a first line therapy for stress ulcer due to its cost effectiveness value. However, research show that 28% of intensive care units (ICU) received inappropriate stress ulcer therapy and 81 % were continued on inappropriately upon transfer from ICU. Furthermore, the disparity in the selection of acid-suppressing medication for stress ulcer is very common amongst and within institutions.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the study is to standardize stress ulcer therapy according to approved guideline in surgical ICU of a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan with the help of clinical pharmacist.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical pharmacist in the implementation of stress ulcer guideline using the data of pharmaceutical intervention and utilization of ranitidine. A one-year retrospective data of pharmaceutical recommendations and drug utilization were collected from October 2017 to September 2018. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis&nbsp;&nbsp; were carried out to analyze the data of the study.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> A total of 540 patients records were evaluated for the study. Pre-intervention and post-intervention include 123 and 417 records, respectively. Whereas, pharmaceutical recommendations made by clinical pharmacist were 80 out of 337 (23%). The most common recommendations were conversion from parenteral to oral (40%). Drug utilization of ranitidine improved tremendously (60 vs 3932).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Clinical pharmacist can play a vital role in the implementation and compliance of clinical guideline along with optimization of pharmacotherapy.</p> 2022-03-26T10:38:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Recommended Guidelines and Efficacy of Statins in Case of Hyperlipidemia 2022-03-26T11:05:39+00:00 Rabia Zahid Hafiz Muhammad Asif Rida Tanveer Zeeshan Summar Misbah Najib <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hyperlipidemia is manifested by increased lipids and lipoprotein. Elevated lipid levels in blood are attributed due to having sedentary lifestyle and environmental conditions. Hyperlipidemia is one of the contributing risk factor for cardio vascular diseases. Human health is remarkably compromised because of cardio vascular disorders and complications associated with it. Statins are the frequently prescribed drug for the management of hyperlipidemia.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The main objective of the proposed investigation was to study the prescribing patterns of statins. Moreover, the outcome of statins on lipid profile in hyperlipidemia patients had also been evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective study was designed where patient data was obtained from the different hospitals of the twin cities i.e. Islamabad and Rawalpindi namely RIC, CDA and PIMS. Samples were obtained by random sampling technique. A sample of 50 patients was obtained. Low density lipoproteins (LDL), high density lipoproteins (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were evaluated for the study.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> We calculated results of 3 months statins therapy in reducing LDL, TG, TC levels and elevating HDL levels. Our results were comparable with the NICE guidelines.</p> 2022-03-26T10:49:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Third Trimester Bleeding 2022-03-26T11:05:45+00:00 Sana Ujala Bushra Mehmood Sana Asghar Misbah Akbar Ammad Masood <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Third trimester bleeding is not uncommon and can pose a great challenge to maternal as well as the fetal wellbeing. Various outcomes have been associated with this; out of which mode of delivery and fetal outcome are salient ones.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the frequencies of various maternal and fetal outcomes with third trimester bleeding.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Participants of age between 20 to 40 years with singleton pregnancy of more than 24 weeks gestation presenting with per vaginal bleeding within 24 hours irrespective of the amount of blood loss were followed to look for mode of delivery i.e., normal/ C-section, cesarean hysterectomy and for fetal death.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 91 cases were enrolled. The mean age of the subjects was 27.82±3.92 years. Mean BMI was 28.82±5.34 kg/m<sup>2</sup> and mean duration of gestation presenting with bleeding was 27.08±6.16 weeks. Out of 92, 33 (36.26%) were graduated and 66 (72.53%) were poor. Out of total 91 cases, 13 (14.28%) had normal delivery, 63 (69.23%) had C-section, 8 (8.79%) had cesarean hysterectomy and 10(10.99%) had fetal death with overlapping of more than 1 complication. There was significant difference in terms of C -section which was significantly higher in cases with age 30 to 40 years where this was seen in 27 (84.37%) out of 32 cases as compared to 36 (61.01%) out of 59 cases with age 20-29 years with p= 0.03.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Perinatal complications are common in cases with third trimester bleeding and the most common one is C-section, which is significantly associated with age 30 to 40 years and none of the other confounders is associated with any complication.</p> 2022-03-26T10:53:32+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Plasmid Analysis of Resistant Bacteria Isolates from Human Orodental Specimens 2022-03-29T07:29:05+00:00 John Owodele Akerele Upe Francisca Babaiwa Sylvester Okhuelegbe Eraga <p><strong><em>Background and Objective:</em></strong> Plasmids play a significant role in developing and spreading multidrug resistance genes in nosocomial pathogens, which is becoming a public health challenge. This study analyzed the plasmid of ten multi-drug resistant isolates identified among 163 bacterial strains obtained from human orodental specimens.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Isolates were subjected to plasmid content analyses and antibiogram before and after curing using standard agar disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. Plasmid DNA isolation and curing were carried out using standard alkaline lysis method and acridine orange as curing agent, while plasmid profiling of cured and wild strains was done on agarose gel electrophoresis.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The bacterial isolates were multi-drug resistant and 80.0% of them harboured one plasmid with a molecular weight of 10.0 kb.&nbsp; The observed plasmid DNA was of type 1 colistins plasmids on comparison with plasmid databases. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of test antibiotics against cured isolates were reduced, corresponding to increased antibacterial effect. However, the cured isolates retained resistance to amoxicillin, which indicated a chromosomal amoxicillin resistance.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The presence of plasmid-borne multi-drug resistance gene in human orodental specimen as observed in our study underscores the need for antibiogram, rational antibiotic usage or stewardship to contain the public scourge of multi drug resistant antibiotic phenomenon.</p> 2022-03-29T07:19:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown School Reopening and the Need for Mental Health Support for Undergraduates in Nigeria: A Mini Review 2022-03-29T07:30:42+00:00 Roland Nnaemeka Okoro Chinelo Nneka Aguiyi-Ikeanyi <p><strong>Background:</strong> Higher education institutions are an important source of health services and supports, which act as a safeguard for students' social, emotional, and physical well-being. When schools are closed for an extended period of time, students may lose a sense of stability in their lives. The COVID19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of schools in meeting students' mental health needs. This revelation opens the door to updating and implementing school mental health policies in order to better assist students in need of mental health services and supports.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To demonstrate the mental health impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and school closure on Nigerian undergraduates and highlight the need for mental health support services for the affected student, as well as the consequences of untreated mental health problems.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Articles on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and school closure on mental health of undergraduates in Nigeria published between April 01, 2020 and December 31, 2021 were searched in Google, Google scholar, medRxiv, and PubMed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority of the studies indicated that COVID-19 pandemic and its associated lockdown and school closure impacted negatively the mental health of Nigerian undergraduates, especially females.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Evidence has demonstrated that COVID-19 pandemic school closures negatively impacted the mental health of undergraduates in Nigeria. This underscores the need for appropriate mental health interventions by professionally trained social workers and counselors to assist affected students in achieving psychological wellness and academic success.</p> 2022-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Attitude and Awareness of Pakistani Population Towards COVID-19 Vaccination 2022-03-29T07:31:18+00:00 Hadia Naz Maria Siddiqui Sheikh Abdul Khaliq <p><strong>Background:</strong> The novel-corona virus (COVID-19) is a single-stranded RNA virus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome in last three years. The WHO declared it as a pandemic in March 2020, and recommends immunizing against this viral infection.&nbsp; Many vaccines are now available globally.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Current research work was carried out to investigate about the attitude and awareness of Pakistani population towards COVID-19 vaccination.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi from May-2021 to July-2021. Data has been collected from 391 respondents by designed questionnaire. Ethical Review Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University approved the study (Reference No. UERC-2021-012). Informed consent was obtained from each participant. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Three-hundred-ninety-one (N=391) respondents included in analysis. Male 39.60% (n=155), Female 60.40% (n=236). Education level; 0.50% (n=02) Primary, 1.50% (n=06) Secondary, 1.80% (n=06) Matric, 15.10% (n=59) Inter, 63.80% (n=250) Graduate and 17.60% (n=69) Post-Graduate. 88.10% (n=347) respondents were not having any chronic disease. Among chronic diseases; 9.30% (n=03) have Diabetes-Mellitus, 10.30% (n=04) have Hypertension and 77.60% (n=28) have other chronic disease. 95.10% (n=372) respondents are aware of COVID-19 infection, 83.70% (n=329) have vaccine information, 61.50% (n=233) believe that COVID-19 vaccination is a prevention against virus. Majority of respondents (90.60%) are not vaccinated yet and only almost half (55.10%) of them are willing to get vaccination. Respondents’ preferred Chinese vaccine SinoPharm 49.80% (n164) over other vaccines.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Majority of Pakistani population is well aware about COVID-19 infection and prefers to get Chinese vaccine over vaccine of other countries.</p> 2022-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##