RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps <p>RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (JPPS) welcomes original research articles, reviews, short communication and case reports in the field of pharmaceutical, medical and health sciences for publications. The mission of this quarterly JPPS (four issues per year) journal is to provide a forum for publishing new findings on scientific issues pertinent to pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences and phytopharmaceutical sciences.</p> Reyazuddin Research & Development Society, Jinnah University for Women en-US RADS Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2521-8514 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br> This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Propylthiouracil: A Thyro-Suppressive as well as Haemato-Suppressive to Induce Agranulocytosis in Hyperthyroid Patients https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/429 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a thyro-suppressive medication commonly used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, but may cause agranulocytosis, which rises the mortality of patients.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> To evaluate the prevalence of agranulocytosis in hyperthyroid patients after the use of Propylthiouracil. The aim of the current research is to access the drug utilization and investigation of PTU which aids in accessing rational therapy and other aspects related to the patient’s safety.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong>A cross- sectional study conducted from May 2016 to April 2017 at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Hospital Hyderabad/ Jamshoro. 150 prescriptions were collected by non-probability consecutive sampling technique from the adults with Hyperthyroidism patients using Propylthiouracil. Thyroid function tests were conducted using Immunoassay Elecysis 2010. The blood profile tests were evaluated on Sysmex kx21. The collected data was evaluated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The data revealed that the propylthiouracil-induced agranulocytosis in 4 hyperthyroid patients (n=2 males, n=2 females) and the prevalence of Propylthiouracil-induced agranulocytosis was 2.7%.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> It was observed that Propylthiouracil damages the hematopoietic stem cells and precursors of granulocytes in bone marrow can cause agranulocytosis.</p> Uzma Naz Shaikh Muhammad Ali Ghoto Abdullah Dayo Mudassar Iqbal Arain Rabia Parveen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.429 Comparison of Kidney-Ureter-Bladder Radiography with Computed Tomography Scout Film for the Diagnosis of Renal Calculi Taking Axial Computed Tomography as Gold Standard https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/443 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Nephrolithiasis is a widespread disease with an incidence of 17-13 in North American, 5-9% in Europe, and 1-5% in the Asian continent. Plain abdominal radiography is used to visualize renal stones, but the cysteine stones are often poorly visible, uric acid and mixed stones are not visible at all. The second diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of renal calculus is computed tomography. The CT scout film is often overlooked and did not use for the diagnostic purpose.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> To compare Kidney-ureter-bladder radiography with computed tomography scout film for the diagnosis of renal calculi taking axial computed tomography as a&nbsp;&nbsp; gold standard.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods: </em></strong>It was a cross-sectional analytical study design conducted on 57 patients presenting with acute flank pain in Faisal Hospital Faisalabad. Patients having ages between 18-60 were included in the study. Pregnant patients and patients with lndinavir therapy were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The sensitivity recorded for CT scout film was 66.7% and for the plain abdominal radiography was 80.7%. The calculus carrying Hounse field unit less than 200 HU were not visualized on both the modalities x-ray and plain abdominal radiography. However, the calculus greater than 5mm in size has a sensitivity of 73% on CT scout film.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The sensitivity recorded for CT scout film was 66.7% and for the plain abdominal radiography was 80.7%. The calculus carrying Hounse field unit less than 200 HU were not visualized on both the modalities x-ray and plain abdominal radiography. However, the calculus greater than 5mm in size has a sensitivity of 73% on CT scout film.</p> Naila Iftikhar Sultan Ayaz Sarah Maryam Abdul Rauf Mehreen Fatima Syed Amir Gilani Raham Bacha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.443 Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Balb C Mice and Pharmacological Intervention by Extract of Daucus Carota https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/428 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Present research was planned to examine the shielding effect of <em>Daucus carota</em> root extract pre-treatment on the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb C mice.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> To cover the assessment of the enzymatic activity such as Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and biochemical constituents like cholesterol, protein, lipids, glucose and urea contents in both the blood and liver while RNA and DNA substances exclusively in the liver.</p> <p><strong><em>Setting: </em></strong>The induction of carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>)-induced hepatotoxicity caused a rise in ALT of plasma and a decline in LDH.</p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong>The mice were treated with CCl<sub>4</sub> and <em>Daucus carota</em> extract to check their effect on the level of biochemical constituents.</p> <p><strong><em>Main Outcome Measure: </em></strong><em>Daucus carota</em> extract pre-treatment obliterated CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced variations in the actions of enzymes.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> cholesterol content decreased while glucose level increased in the blood. Glucose, lipids, cholesterol and urea in the liver were reduced while total protein level rose. <em>Daucus carota</em> extract pre-treatment also prohibited CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced variations in total protein contents, urea, glucose and lipids in the liver. CCl<sub>4</sub> action caused huge hepatic damage. This was averted by <em>Daucus carota</em> extract.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> These outcomes reveal that <em>Daucus carota</em> root extract pre-treatment inhibited hepatic damage induced by CCl<sub>4</sub> in the mice model, which corroborates its defensive effects against hepatic damage produced by both non-oxidative and oxidative mechanisms.</p> tafail akbar mughal Shaukat Ali Ali Hassan Muhammad Zubair Saleem Shumaila Mumtaz Samaira Mumtaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.428 Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using Crude Extract of Crotalaria burhia https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/464 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Appearance of antibiotic resistance has raised the demand to find alternative therapies and modified drug delivery system of medicinal plants to treat bacterial infections.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> The aim of this study is the green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by using crude extract of <em>Crotalaria burhia</em> and to evaluate their antibacterial potential.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>The roots and stems of plant were used to prepare the crude extract. The phytochemical analysis of different compounds in extract was performed. 1mM AgNO<sub>3</sub> and different concentrations of plant extract were used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The particles size and zeta potential were measured by zeta sizer while surface morphology of silver nanoparticles was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was performed by 96 well microdilution plate method.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The particle size and zeta potential of optimized formulation was 92 nm and -24.8 mV. The SEM analysis showed that silver nanoparticles are irregular and spherical shape. The antibacterial activity showed that MIC value of silver nanoparticles was lower for <em>E. coli</em> than <em>S. aureus</em>.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Silver nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity against <em>E. coli</em> and moderate activity against <em>S. aureus</em>. It had been concluded that these nanoparticles can be used against multi-drug resistant bacterial infections.</p> Khalil Ahmad Raeesa Noor Muhammad Younus Akram Chohan ume habiba Hafiz Muhammad Asif Abdul Wadood Chishti sohaib Saifullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.464 Impacts of Educational Intervention on Cervical Cancer Knowledge Among Health Care Students in a Tertiary Institution https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/399 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Cervical cancer (CC) is the commonest female cancer in the developing nations. The virus behind CC is Human papillomavirus (HPV). In sub-Saharan Africa, high mortality arises from low public awareness and knowledge about the disease.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> This study assessed the effectiveness of educational intervention as a means to improve cervical cancer knowledge among health care students.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong>Year 4-5 medical and pharmacy students of Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU) took part in a quasi-experimental study. An anonymous pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data at pre-and post-intervention sessions for comparison after one and half hours of educational intervention lecture. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Age range 21-26 years was 85.0%, male to female: 1.1:1.2. Majority (63.1%) had heard of CC prior to the intervention, gender it affects (50.6%), stages of cervical cancer (26.3%). Infection with HPV (14.4%), genetics (61.9%), having many children (15.0%). Pap test is to detect early signs of CC (41.3%), pap test not needed after HPV vaccine (20.0%), healthy adult women have pap test every three years (21.3%), All the scores significantly increased after post-intervention.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Educational intervention was successful in improving CC knowledge among participants.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">&nbsp;</span></p> Winifred Ojieabu Christabel Ojieabu Shakirat Bello Frederick Oseji ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.399 Effect of Perceived Social Support on Postnatal Depression in Females with Cesarean Section and Normal Vaginal Delivery https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/482 <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> To assess the association of perceived social support with postnatal depression among puerperal women of Faisalabad, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> It was a case-control study carried out during a period of 18 months (1-1-2019 to 30-06-2020). By using purposive sampling technique 284 postpartum women were enrolled from Allied hospital and Children hospital Faisalabad. The postnatal depression was diagnosed with Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS).The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure the social support that was perceived by women.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> According to cut-off score ≥13 on EPDS 37.3% women were found depressed while 62.7% women were found non-depressed. The mean EPDS score ± SD was 10.12 ± 6.27 (min score 0; max score 27). The perceived social support from significant other, family and friends was found as significant predictor of postnatal depression. With one-point increase in global perceived social support, the postnatal depression decreased by 0.1 points on EPDS scale (p = 0.03) among women in normal vaginal delivery group, by 0.2 points in cesarean section group (p &lt;0.001) and the postnatal depression decreased by 0.2 points in total sample (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> A poor perceived social support from significant other, family and friends is a significant risk factor for postnatal depression among puerperal women.</p> Muhammad Saleem Rana Mohammad Asif Asif Hanif Syed Amir Gilani Ume Habiba Sultan Ayaz Benish Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.482 Studies on Fruit Pectin in the Development of Tablet Formulations of Ibuprofen https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/397 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Pectin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide is more than a food additive and has got amazing properties as a gelling agent and as a binder.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> The current research entails the extraction and identification of pectin from peels of selected fruits mango (Magnifera indica) and banana (Musa paradisiaca) by direct heating and using alcohol as precipitating agent. The potential of pectin as a binding agent in tablet formulation was evaluated by screening its micromeritics and post compression properties.</p> <p><strong><em>Method:</em></strong> quadruple formulations of ibuprofen with crude peel pectin extracted from mango and banana in concentration of 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg respectively were employed in the tablet manufacture process by wet granulation method.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Successful formulation of tablet was done with the extracted pectin from the two fruit peels. The micromeritics properties showed good binding and flowing properties. An increase in concentration of pectin increased the hardness and also the dissolution of tablets up to a certain extent. The disintegration time was suitable for all formulations.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> It was concluded that pectin extracted from mango and banana peels can be used as a super disintegrating agent in pharmaceutical formulations, where needed.</p> Nausheen Tariq Siddiqui Ramla binte Baber Rsfi Akhtar Sultan Iqbal Azhar Waseemuddin Ahmed Zafar Alam Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.397 Pharmacognostic, Antimicrobial and Toxicological Studies of a Seasonal Medicinal Plant; Tagetes Patula L https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/480 <p><strong><em>Purpose of this study:</em></strong> This study has been carried out to explore the medicinal significance of <em>Tagetes </em><em>patula</em> by evaluating its in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and toxicological effects. Pharmacognostic standardization is done to maintain the purity and quality of the drug.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> Pharmacognostic studies (macro morphology and microscopy i.e.&nbsp; Histology and powder microscopy), solubility and color reaction of <em>T.patula</em> were carried out followed by in vitro antimicrobial studies of ethanol extract of the flowers.&nbsp; In this regard antibacterial, antifungal, and toxicological studies were performed by well diffusion, Agar dilution, and larvicidal activity respectively.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Flower extract of <em>T. patula</em> showed good antibacterial effects against gram +ve and gram –ve bacteria except <em>Shigella flexanri</em>. Moreover it showed powerful antifungal effects against various human (<em>Aspergillus flavus, Candida glabrata, Trichophytonlongifusus</em>), plant (<em>Fusariumsolani)</em>and animal pathogens (<em>Microsporumcanis</em>). Moreover remarkable larvicidal activity was observed&nbsp; against brine shrimp at 100 and 1000 µg/ml.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> This research study makes the valuable medicinal plant a good candidate for skin infections and wound management for topical use.Such studies will help in formulating topical herbal preparations to combat inflammatory and infectious skin disease.</p> Tayyaba Faraz Ghazala H Rizwani Bushra Hina Huma Sharif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.480 Health Emergency with COVID-19 and Supporting Role of Community Pharmacists in Pakistan https://jpps.juw.edu.pk/index.php/jpps/article/view/421 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The infection (COVID-19) inflicted via newly discovered strain of the virus was first spotted in Wuhan in December 2019 and established as a worldwide public health emergency on 30th January, 2020 demanding support from all healthcare sectors, on urgent basis.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> The objective of this review is to highlight and appreciate roles of community pharmacists during COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> For literature review various databases were used such as Google Scholar, Springer Link, PubMed, MEDLINE and Science Direct.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The proposed provisions such as social distancing and lockdowns to quite an extent aided in restricting the dispersion of the virus. In addition, wearing face mask, washing hands, using sanitizer with periodic disinfection of surrounding was recommended. These measures were registered to provide protection to all and positively influence the life of special population i.e., those suffering from chronic diseases, as they don't approach the healthcare facilities on a regular basis for their everyday care and supervision, in terms of medication. However, the easiest approach to gain access to sophisticated health facilities in such conditions remained and is through retail pharmacy outlets.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The existing healthcare system with surging stress and fear can be profoundly reduced by participation of community pharmacists and their thorough involvement in managing chronic illnesses and strengthening medication adherence.</p> Mayyda Asif Bajwa, Dr Kanwal Ashiq, Dr Haiqa Hafeez Mehwish Qayyum, Dr Samreen Tanveer, Dr Wajeeha Arslan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 8 4 10.37962/jpps.v8i4.421