DNA Cross-Links, Causative Agents and Repairing Agents

  • Taha Nazir Microbiology and Molecular Biology Research Group, Advanced Multiple Incorporation, Mississauga ON Canada
  • Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
  • Furqan K. Hashmi University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Rahat Shamim University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Humayun Riaz Rashid Latif College of Pharmacy, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Safia Sultana Munir Professor, Shalamar Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Azharul Islam Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA
Keywords: Protein, Cross-link, Agents and Cisplatin.


Context: deoxyribonucleic acid is under attack continuously by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors.DNA lesions areĀ  introduced by the DNA replication. This takes place because of mismatched ribonucleotides or bases that areincorporated randomly by the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases.

Objectives: The study intended to examine the data from studies onDNA cross-links, causative agents and repairing agents.

Design: The research team performed a literature review, searching relevant literature databases. The sources of data included bioRxiv, medRxiv, Google Scholar, Embase, PsychINFO, and PubMed. The search terms were DNA cross-links, causative and repairing agent.

Setting: The study took place in the main library of the University of Sargodha.

Results: The study identified 39 unique studies that had reported and confirmed DNA cross-links, causativeand repairing agent. The studies found thatthe chemical reliability of Deoxyribonucleic acid is persistently being confronted by environmental and cellular genotoxic agents that create a varied arrangement of covalent nucleobase adduct.

Conclusion: The agents that produce these DRCs include ionizing radiation and UV light. Crosslinking agents are a diverse group of chemical molecules that comprise of two or additional reactive ends.It hasproved that homologous repair and nucleoside excision repair have cooperated closely and mitigated the genotoxic effect of DNA protein cross-links in the cells of Escherichia coli. DNA cross-linking therapies are used to treat various genetic diseases.These lesions can be detected by various methods and repaired using cross-linking agents such ascisplatin, and mitomycin.

Review Article