Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometry: Structural Applications and Solvent Effects
Ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrometry is routinely used for the quantitative determination of different analytes, such as drug compounds, highly conjugated organic compounds, and biological macromolecules. Spectroscopic analysis is commonly carried out in solutions but solids and gases may also be studied. UV-vis absorption band positions, intensity and shape of solvent-sensitive molecules show changes in solvents of varying polarity. In this article a general overview of recent progress in the field of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of a variety of molecules is presented. Moreover, the behavior of various compounds in different solvents and the effects of these solvents on the intramolecular charge transfer bands have been discussed using various solvent parameters such as solvatochromic behavior i.e. hypsochromic or bathochromic shifts in wavelength of maximum absorption, solute-solvent interactions and dielectric constant effects.