Comparative Risk Reduction of Hypertension in Diabetic Patients by Allopathic and Alternative Therapeutic Systems – A Cross Sectional Survey

  • Mahmood Sheikh Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan
  • Sheikh Abdul Khaliq Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Iqbal Azhar Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan
  • Anab Fatima Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Pakistan
Keywords: Diabetes, Hypertension, risk, relative-risk-reduction, number-needed-to-treat


Objectives: The main goal of study is to assess the effect of different therapeutic systems of medicine including Allopathic and Alternative Medicine in reducing the risk of Hypertension (HTN) by applying standardized tools of Evidenced Based Medicine in patients of T2D (Type-II-Diabetes).

Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted from July-2018 to June-2019. Two-hundred (N=200) confirmed cases of T2D enrolled in the study. Patients treated with either Allopathic, Herbal, Homeopathic and/or Combination-systems of medicines. Primary-end-point of study was outcome of Hypertension. Data has been evaluated by Relative Risk Reduction (RRR) of HTN and Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) for reduction of one case of HTN. Data was processed through the Statistical-Package-for-Social-Sciences (SPSS-22).

Results: Four groups of therapy were compared in T2D patients; Allopathic, Homeopathic, Herbal and Combination. T2D-patients taking insulin; RRR of HTN by Allopathic-system V/S Combination-system:-27.30%,NNT≈-05.0; without insulin RRR by Allopathic-system V/S Homeopathic-system:-211%,NNT≈-2.0; V/S Herbal:-84.72%,NNT≈-3.0; combination:-42%,NNT≈-4.0. With Exercise RRR by Allopathic-system V/S Herbal-system:-550%,NNT≈-1.0; V/S combination:-35.41%,NNT≈-5.0. Without Exercise RRR by Allopathic-system V/S Homeopathic:-211%,NNT≈-2.0; V/S Herbal-system:-69.62%,NNT≈-3.0; V/S combination-system:-46.86%,NNT≈-4.0. With Low-caloric-diet RRR by Allopathic-system V/S Homeopathic-system:-646%,NNT≈-1.0; V/S Herbal-system:-86.66%,NNT≈-2.0; V/S combination:-45.82%,NNT≈-3.0. Without Low-caloric-diet RRR by Allopathic-system V/S Homeopathic -system: -52%,NNT≈-4.0; V/S Herbal-system:-128%,NNT≈-2.0; V/S combination-system:-42.5%,NNT≈-4.0. In combination-systems of medicine; RRR by Allopathic + Homeopathic V/S Allopathic + Herbal: 16.25%,NNT≈10; V/S Allopathic + Homeopathic + Herbal: 46.16%,NNT≈2.  

Conclusion: Allopathic-system of medicine posses’ high risk of HTN compared to homeopathic, herbal and combination-systems of medicine in T2D-patients.